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Inland Australia has had a problem with drought from the time of white settlement in until today, and this is why the Snowy Mountains Scheme was conceived and founded. Hence, Snowy River water flowed, ultimately, into the sea, not toward the dry interior of the country, where people needed it so desperately. This was first recognised by the Polish geologist and explorer Strezlecki inwho commented that there could be no development of the inland without adequate water supply.

The rivers would have to be diverted if irrigation were to succeed. Before Federation inAustralia consisted of a group of colonies, all anxious to protect their own interests. After Federation the states retained rights to the water, and thus to what might happen to the rivers. The project was officially commenced on October 17 that year, barely three months after the act had been passed.

The scheme set out to harness water for electricity and to divert it back to the dry inland areas for irrigation. To do this, thousands of kilometres of tunnels had to be drilled through the mountains, and sixteen major dams and seven hydro-electric power stations built over a period of nineteen years.

The first of these was Guthega Power Station, which was commissioned in The Snowy Mountains Scheme was to alter the face of Australia forever. One important change was the recruitment of people from outside Australia to work on the scheme.

Inwhile the world was still recovering from the effects of World War II tothe Australian government needed immense numbers of people to work on the Snowy.

It sought labour from overseas, and 60, of thepeople who worked on the scheme came from outside the country. They came from thirty different countries: from Italy, Yugoslavia, and Germany, from sophisticated cities like Budapest, Paris and Vienna, and from tiny hamlets. These European workers left countries which had fought against each other during the war, and which had vastly different cultures, and they found themselves in a country which was still defining itself.

They were adventurous young men, some highly skilled, some not, and they came to a place which offered both enormous challenges and primitive conditions. Many were housed in tents in the early days of the scheme, although some fortunate men were placed in barracks.

The food was basic, female company extremely scarce and entertainment lacking. Many new arrivals spoke only limited English, and were offered English classes after work.

The men needed primarily to understand safety instructions, and safety lectures were conducted in English and other languages. In fact, a great deal of communication underground was by sign language, especially when the conditions were noisy.

The signs were peculiar to the business at hand : for instance, a thumb placed near the mouth meant water, but did not indicate whether the water was needed on the drill the man was using, or for a drink.

The constant reference to the men who worked on the Snowy is appropriate because few women worked on the scheme, and those who were employed usually held office jobs.

Other English instruction was provided by the Australian Broadcasting Commission, which ran daily broadcasts to help the newcomers with the language.

These circumstances could have caused great social trouble, but there were relatively few serious problems. The men worked long and hard, and many saved their money with a view to settling in Australia or returning home.

At a reunion in many were happy to remember the hardships of those daysbut it was all seen through a glow of achievement. This satisfaction was felt not only by the men who worked directly on the project, but by the women, many of whom had been wives and mothers during the scheme, and indicated that they had felt very much part of it.

The children of these couples went to school in Happy Jack, a town notable for having the highest school in Australia, and the highest birth rate. In one memorable year there were thirty babies born to the eighty families in Happy Jack.

Older children went to school in Cooma, the nearest major town. The scheme is very unlikely to be repeated. The expense of putting the power stations underground would now be prohibitive, and our current information about ecology would require a different approach to the treatment of the rivers.

Other hydro-electric schemes like the Tennessee Valley Authority preceded the Snowy Mountains Scheme, and others have followed. The Snowy Mountains Scheme is the only hydro-electric scheme in the world to be totally financed from the sale of its electricity. As well as being a great engineering feat, the scheme is a monument to people from around the world who dared to change their lives.You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1—13which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

A The Earth is the third planet from the Sun and it is the only planet known to have life on it. The Earth formed around 4. It is one of four rocky planets on the inside of the Solar System. The other three are Mercury, Venus, and Mars. B The large mass of the Sun makes the Earth move around it, just as the mass of the Earth makes the Moon move around it.

The Earth also turns round in space, so different parts face the Sun at different times. That is where the idea of "month" came from. However, now most months have 30 or 31 days so they fit into one year.

D The Earth is the only planet in our Solar System that has a large amount of liquid water. Because of this, it is sometimes called the "Blue Planet". E Because of its water, the Earth is home to millions of species of plants and animals. The things that live on Earth have changed its surface greatly. For example, early cyanobacteria changed the air and gave it oxygen.

IELTS Recent Actual Test With Answers Volume 2

The living part of the Earth's surface is called the "biosphere". G The Earth is generallykilometers or 93, miles away from the Sun this distance is named an "Astronomical Unit".

The Earth moves along its way at an average speed of about 30 km or 19 mi a second. To make up this extra bit of a day every year, an additional day is used every four years. This is named a "leap year". H The Moon goes around the Earth at an average distance ofkilometersmi.

It is locked to Earth, so that it always has the same half facing the Earth; the other half is called the "dark side of the Moon". This is where the word "month" came from, even though most months now have 30 or 31 days. Reading Passage 1 has eight paragraphs A-H. Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter, A—Hin boxes 1—8 on your answer sheet.

Distance between Earth and Sun. General information about Earth. The Solar System.Inland Australia has had a problem with drought from the time of white settlement in until today, and this is why the Snowy Mountains Scheme was conceived and founded. Before the Snowy Scheme a large proportion of the snowfields on Australia's highest mountains the Snowy Mountains melted into the Snowy River every year.

Hence, Snowy River water flowed, ultimately, into the sea, not toward the dry interior of the country, where people needed it so desperately. This was first recognised by the Polish geologist and explorer Strezlecki inwho commented that there could be no development of the inland without adequate water supply.

The rivers would have to be diverted if irrigation were to succeed. Before Federation inAustralia consisted of a group of colonies, all anxious to protect their own interests. After Federation the states retained rights to the water, and thus to what might happen to the rivers. The project was officially commenced on October 17 that year, barely three months after the act had been passed.

The scheme set out to harness water for electricity and to divert it back to the dry inland areas for irrigation. To do this, thousands of kilometres of tunnels had to be drilled through the mountains, and sixteen major dams and seven hydro-electric power stations built over a period of nineteen years.

The first of these was Guthega Power Station, which was commissioned in The Snowy Mountains Scheme was to alter the face of Australia forever. One important change was the recruitment of people from outside Australia to work on the scheme. Inwhile the world was still recovering from the effects of World War II tothe Australian government needed immense numbers of people to work on the Snowy. It sought labour from overseas, and 60, of thepeople who worked on the scheme came from outside the country.

They came from thirty different countries: from Italy, Yugoslavia, and Germany, from sophisticated cities like Budapest, Paris and Vienna, and from tiny hamlets.

These European workers left countries which had fought against each other during the war, and which had vastly different cultures, and they found themselves in a country which was still defining itself. They were adventurous young men, some highly skilled, some not, and they came to a place which offered both enormous challenges and primitive conditions.

IELTS Recent Actual Test With Answers Volume 1

Many were housed in tents in the early days of the scheme, although some fortunate men were placed in barracks. The food was basic, female company extremely scarce and entertainment lacking.

Many new arrivals spoke only limited English, and were offered English classes after work. The men needed primarily to understand safety instructions, and safety lectures were conducted in English and other languages. In fact, a great deal of communication underground was by sign language, especially when the conditions were noisy. The signs were peculiar to the business at hand : for instance, a thumb placed near the mouth meant water, but did not indicate whether the water was needed on the drill the man was using, or for a drink.

The constant reference to the men who worked on the Snowy is appropriate because few women worked on the scheme, and those who were employed usually held office jobs. Other English instruction was provided by the Australian Broadcasting Commission, which ran daily broadcasts to help the newcomers with the language.

These circumstances could have caused great social trouble, but there were relatively few serious problems.

The men worked long and hard, and many saved their money with a view to settling in Australia or returning home. At a reunion in many were happy to remember the hardships of those daysbut it was all seen through a glow of achievement.The 16th and 17th centuries saw two great pioneers of modern science: Galileo and Gilbert.

The impact of their findings is eminent. Gilbert was the first modern scientist, also the accredited father of the science of electricity and magnetism, an Englishman of learning and a physician at the court of Elizabeth. Prior to him, all that was known of electricity and magnetism was what the ancients knew, nothing more than that the lodestone possessed magnetic properties and that amber and jet, when rubbed, would attract bits of paper or other substances of small specific gravity.

However, he is less well known than he deserves. Later he travelled in the continent and eventually settled down in London. He was a very successful and eminent doctor. All this culminated in his election to the president of the Royal Science Society. He was also appointed personal physician to the Queen Elizabeth Iand later knighted by the Queen.

Gilbert was first interested in chemistry but later changed his focus due to the large portion of mysticism of alchemy involved such as the transmutation of metal. He gradually developed his interest in physics after the great minds of the ancient, particularly about the knowledge the ancient Greeks had about lodestones, strange minerals with the power to attract iron.

British ships depended on the magnetic compass, yet no one understood why it worked. He investigated the nature of magnetism and electricity. The magnetic poles can attract or repel, depending on polarity. In addition, however, ordinary iron is always attracted to a magnet. His research of static electricity using amber and jet only demonstrated that objects with electrical charges can work like magnets attracting small pieces of paper and stuff.

It is a French guy named du Fay that discovered that there are actually two electrical charges, positive and negative. He also questioned the traditional astronomical beliefs. However, he believed that stars are not equidistant from the earth but have their own earth-like planets orbiting around them.

The earth itself is like a giant magnet, which is also why compasses always point north. He even likened the polarity of the magnet to the polarity of the earth and built an entire magnetic philosophy on this analogy.

In his explanation, magnetism is the soul of the earth.

the dams that changed australia ielts reading answers

Further, he also believed that the sun and other stars wobble just like the earth does around a crystal core, and speculated that the moon might also be a magnet caused to orbit by its magnetic attraction to the earth. This was perhaps the first proposal that a force might cause a heavenly orbit. His research method was revolutionary in that he used experiments rather than pure logic and reasoning like the ancient Greek philosophers did.

It was a new attitude towards scientific investigation. Until then, scientific experiments were not in fashion.Found a mistake? Let us know! Share this Practice Test. Sometimes work, study or an sense of adventure take us out of our familiar surroundings to go and live in a different culture. The experience can be difficult, even shocking. Almost everyone who studies, lives or works abroad has problems adjusting to a new culture.

This response is commonly referred to as 'culture shock'. Culture shock can be defined as 'the physical and emotional discomfort a person experiences when entering a culture different from their own' Weaver, For people moving to Australia, Price has identified certain values which may give rise to culture shock. Firstly, he argues that Australians place a high value on independence and personal choice.

This means that a teacher or course tutor will not tell students what to do, but will give them a number of options and suggest they work out which one is the best in their circumstances. It also means that they are expected to take action if something goes wrong and seek out resources and support for themselves. Australians are also prepared to accept a range of opinions rather than believing there is one truth. This means that in an educational setting, students will be expected to form their own opinions and defend the reasons for that point of view and the evidence for it.

Price also comments that Australians are uncomfortable with differences in status and hence idealise the idea of treating everyone equally. An illustration of this is that most adult Australians call each other by their first names. This concern with equality means that Australians are uncomfortable taking anything too seriously and are even ready to joke about themselves. Australians believe that life should have a balance between work and leisure time.

As a consequence, some students may be critical of others who they perceive as doing nothing but study. Australian notions of privacy mean that areas such as financial matters, appearance and relationships are only discussed with close friends.

THE DAMS THAT CHANGED AUSTRALIA (NHỮNG CON ĐẬP ĐÃ LÀM THAY ĐỔI AUSTRALIA)

While people may volunteer such information, they may resent someone actually asking them unless the friendship is firmly established. Even then, it is considered very impolite to ask someone what they earn.

the dams that changed australia ielts reading answers

With older people, it is also rude to ask how old they are, why they are not married or why they do not have children. It is also impolite to ask people how much they have paid for something, unless there is a very good reason for asking.

Kohls describes culture shock as a process of change marked by four basic stages. During the first stagethe new arrival is excited to be in a new place, so this is often referred to as the " honeymoon " stage. Like a tourist, they are intrigued by all the new sights and sounds, new smells and tastes of their surroundings. They may have some problems, but usually they accept them as just part of the novelty. At this point, it is the similarities that stand out, and it seems to the newcomer that people everywhere and their way of life are very much alike.Breaking the habit.

We all think we can break our bad habits — but they can stay with us for life.

the dams that changed australia ielts reading answers

What is a bad habit? The most common definition is that it is something that we do regularly, almost without thinking about it, and which has some sort of negative consequence. This consequence could affect those around us, or it could affect us personally. Those who deny having bad habits are probably lying.

Bad habits are part of what makes us human. Many early habits, like sucking our thumb, are broken when we are very young. We are either told to stop doing it by our parents, or we consciously or subconsciously observe that others do not have the same habit, and we gradually grow out of it.

It is when we intentionally or unintentionally pick up new habits in our later childhood or early adulthood that it becomes a problem. Unless we can break that habit early on, it becomes a part of our life, and becomes 'programmed' into our brain. A recent study of human memory suggests that no matter how hard we try to change our habits, it is the old ways that tend to win, especially in situations where we are rushed, stressed or overworked.

Habits that we thought we had got rid of can suddenly come back. During the study programme, the researchers showed a group of volunteers several pictures, and gave them words to associate with them for example, see a picture of tea, and associate it with 'breakfast'.

They then showed the volunteers the same pictures again, and gave them new words to associate with them see a picture of tea, and say 'afternoon'.

A few days later, the volunteers were given a test. The researchers showed them the pictures, and told them to respond with one of the words they had been given for each one. It came as no surprise that their answers were split between the first set of words and the second.

Asad Yaqub's LOGIC for LIST OF HEADINGS -- IELTS Reading

Two weeks later, they were given the same test again. This time, most of them only gave the first set of words. They appeared to have completely forgotten the second set.

The study confirms that the responses we learn first are those that remain strongest over time. We may try to change our ways, but after a while, the response that comes to mind first is usually the first one we learned. The more that response is used, the more automatic it becomes and the harder it becomes to respond in any other way.

The study therefore suggests that over time, our bad habits also become automatic, learned behaviour. This is not good news for people who picked up bad habits early in life and now want to change or break them. Even when we try to put new, good intentions into practice, those previously learned habits remain stronger in more automatic, unconscious forms of memory.

Come as no surprise. Come to mind first. Pick up. Get rid of. Search this site. A modest undertaking.To all our teachers: There are many language schools and other educational institutions closing now because of the Coronavirus situation. Please remember we have our Student Site.

The desert sun beats down from a cloudless sky as Las Vegas landscaper Mat Baroudi roars across Lake Mead in his motorboat.

It's hot. The lake is the perfect place to be on a scorching Nevada morning. Baroudi loves coming out here with his son to fish and swim. But for the last few years, they have watched the lake shrink from under them. To get an idea how far the nation's largest reservoir has fallen, consider this: What was once one of Lake Mead's top scuba-diving spots is now halfway up a dry hillside.

Baroudi steers the boat past an island with a squat, beige cylinder the width of a basketball court. It looks a bit like a concrete UFO.

It was part of the plant that churned out 4, cubic yards of concrete to build Hoover Dam, a couple miles over the hills to the southeast. The plant disappeared into the murky depths in the s when the dam was completed and the reservoir filled.

the dams that changed australia ielts reading answers

The structure sits beached on a rocky outcrop looking down on the lake it helped create. Reaching it is no longer a dive. It's a climb. Hoover Dam was built to store the waters of the fickle Colorado River, taming floods, relieving droughts and pouring life into the desert southwestern United States. Lake Mead anchors the lower half of the river basin, a system that provides water to nearly 40 million people in seven U.

Cities from San Diego to Denver drink from the Colorado. The river irrigates more than 5 million acres of farmland, including California's Imperial Valley and Arizona's Yuma County, two areas that supply the nation with most of its vegetables through the winter season.

Both would be barren without its waters. As Lake Mead recedes, it has left a white stripe of mineral deposits 14 stories tall across the brown and red rock walls, as if to underline a question: Have we overreached? From North Africa to Southeast Asia, many of the world's key river systems are being stretched to their limits. In a report, U. Food security, economic development and regional stability are all at risk, it warned. The same is true for the Colorado. You have some of the grandest national parks.

You have any number of [Native American] tribal nations. You have an enormous hydropower production.